Trust Law Partners Blog

We understand how complicated it can be to navigate trust disputes. Our blog is designed to give you the information needed to better understand how to protect your interests as trustees.


Trustee Liability: Commingling Trust Assets and the Risks to Beneficiaries

Trusts are powerful estate planning tools designed to protect and manage assets for the benefit of beneficiaries. Central to the trust’s integrity is the responsible management of trust assets by the trustee. However, trustees who commingle trust assets by treating the trust’s bank account as their personal piggy bank can jeopardize the interests of beneficiaries and expose themselves to significant liability. In this article, we explore the concept of commingling trust assets, the potential consequences, and ways to prevent this harmful practice.

Commingling Trust Assets Defined

Commingling trust assets occurs when a trustee mixes trust assets with their personal funds, using the same bank accounts for both. This practice blurs the distinction between the trust’s assets and the trustee’s personal finances, making it challenging to track, protect, and account for the trust’s property accurately.

Risks and Consequences of Commingling Trust Assets

1. Breach of Fiduciary Duty — Trustees are fiduciaries who owe beneficiaries a duty to act in their best interests. Commingling assets constitutes a breach of this duty, as it can lead to confusion, mismanagement, and conflicts of interest.

2. Legal Liability — When commingling occurs, trustees can be held personally liable for any losses suffered by the trust or beneficiaries due to their actions. Courts may order them to reimburse the trust for any funds wrongfully used.

3. Loss of Tax Benefits — Commingling can jeopardize the trust’s tax benefits, such as preferential tax treatment or exemptions. It can result in tax complications and additional financial burdens for beneficiaries.

4. Difficulty in Accounting — Commingling trust assets makes it challenging to maintain accurate records and account for transactions. This can lead to disputes, mistrust, and even legal action by beneficiaries.

5. Diminished Credibility — Trustees who commingle assets erode the credibility and trust beneficiaries have in their ability to manage the trust competently and ethically.

It’s important to follow the legal requirements when creating and revoking wills in California. Additionally, the specific laws and requirements regarding wills can change over time. It’s a good idea to consult with a legal professional who is knowledgeable about the current laws in California to ensure your wishes are properly documented and executed.

Preventing Commingling of Trust Assets

To avoid the risks associated with commingling trust assets, trustees should adopt the following best practices:

1. Open a Dedicated Trust Account — Trustees should establish a separate bank account exclusively for trust assets. This ensures a clear demarcation between personal and trust funds.

2. Keep Meticulous Records — Accurate record-keeping is crucial. Trustees should maintain detailed records of all financial transactions involving trust assets, making it easier to provide an account to beneficiaries when needed.

3. Obtain Professional Advice — Trustees should consider consulting with financial and legal professionals who can guide them on proper trust administration and compliance with fiduciary responsibilities.

4. Seek Beneficiary Consent — In some cases, it may be necessary to obtain consent from beneficiaries before making significant financial decisions. This transparency helps prevent potential conflicts of interest.

5. Avoid Mixing Funds — Trustees should never use trust assets for personal expenses, and they should avoid using their personal funds to cover trust expenses. Maintaining a clear separation is essential.

6. Regular Reporting — Trustees should provide beneficiaries with regular reports on the status and performance of the trust, ensuring transparency and accountability.


Commingling trust assets by using the trust bank account as a personal piggy bank is a grave breach of fiduciary duty that can lead to severe consequences for trustees. Beneficiaries have the right to expect that trust assets will be managed responsibly and ethically. To protect the interests of beneficiaries and maintain the integrity of the trust, trustees must adhere to best practices, maintain clear separation of trust and personal funds, and seek professional guidance when necessary. Ultimately, a well-administered trust ensures that beneficiaries’ financial interests are safeguarded and preserved as intended by the settlor.